NOTE: Wikispaces would not allow me to make the "Notes" page link look like all the rest, so please excuse the inconsistency.

This page is a collection of some of my notes taken after reading books and websites.​



Notes from books:

Animal Assisted Brief Therapy- A solution-Focused Approach
Pg. 2 “Dogs are not just people with fur!”
Pg. 3 You can’t be equals with your dog, but be their master, trainer, partner (boss)
“I learned that the most effective relationship came from valuing how my pet thought and view the world, not from insisting that he saw it my way.”
Chapter 3:
Pg. 51 “In order to really enjoy a dog, one doesn’t merely try to train him to be semi human. The point of it is to open oneself to the possibility to becoming partly a dog.” Edward Hoagland, American novelist
Pg. 52 the dogs in movies (Lassie, Benji, Goofy) say dogs are semihuman
à wrong
Humanizing dogs
à dangerous for therapists who want to use dogs
“Jean Donaldson (1996) summarized the consequences of our humanization of animals best when she stated, ‘As soon as you bestow intelligence and morality, you bestow the responsibility that goes along with them.’ Once we believe that dogs urinate in the house or chew our favorite items deliberately, they are now deserving of punishment, for they should be held responsible. Unfortunately, we often overestimate our canine friends’ abilities and set them up for failure.”
Pg. 53 top 10 list of things we know about dogs
1. It’s all chew toys to them (no concept of artifacts, tokens or symbols)
2. Amoral (no right vs. wrong, only safe vs. dangerous)
3. Self-interested (no desire to please)
4. Lemon-brains (ie., small & relatively unconvoluted brains which learn only through operant and classical conditioning)
5. Predators (search, chase, grab & hold, dissect, chew all strongly wired)
6. Highly social (bond strongly & don’t cope well with isolation)
7. Finite socialization period (fight or flee anything they’re not socialized to)
8. Opportunistic and keen scavengers (if it’s edible, eat it, NOW)
9. Resolve conflicts through ritualized aggression (never write letters to editor, never sue)
10. Well-developed olfactory system

A Dog Who’s Always Welcome
Pg. 56 Breed Hardwiring- the breed characteristics will influence the training process they are about to undertake. Certain breeds are more suited for certain behaviors.
Pg. 58 Default Behaviors- Default behaviors can arise as athe result of breeding or hlearning. Default behaviors emerge when a dog becomes so stressed or excited that she does not mentally connect with her training experiences, but behaves according to deeply seated drives or fears resulting from instinctive or learned behavior. ..If you can recognize and remember your dog’s default behaviors, you will be able to anticipate situations before they arise. We already know that assistance dog trainers have developed the ability to anticipate a situation and sense the dog’s likely response to it, providing the trainers with opportunities to teach rather than to react.
Here’s where puppy temperament tests and adult dog personality profiles make a great contribution when selecting a dog. They help to reveal a dog’s default behaviors in advance by evaluating the dog’s responses to carefully constructed exercises. If you can uncover a dog’s key default behaviors in advance and stay alert for any that develop later, you will get a picture of what kinds of traingin situations you might face in the future.
…What I am suggesting is that you observe yoru dog and make judgments about how he really is, including his strengths and limitations. Then, take that information and help him to become the best dog he can be. Help your shy dog develop more emotional vigor so he can accompany you to more places. Help your hard-charing socialite to learn that you will guide his behavior into more acceptable modes of interaction so that he will be welcome in more places as your companion.
…Unwanted default behaviors can be overlaid with more desireable behaviors as a result of traingin and support, but Brian must recognize and note the dog’s natural fallback positions before he starts any training.
CHECK OUT CANINE PERSONALITY PROFILE:
www.volhard.com/training/cpp.hm
…Delta Society looks for the following general characteristics (when evaluating a prospective THERAPY dog):
· Behaviorally reliable, predictable, and controllable
· Shows no shyness, aggression, or fear
· Demonstrates nonthreatening or neutral body posture
· Wags his fail in a friendly manner or keeps it relaxed
· Has a soft-appearing body (not tense) and a relaxed face
· Vocalizes minimally

Notes from websites:


http://www.musanim.com/miller1956/the magical number seven http://www.new-science-theory.com/isaac-newton.htmlBlack box theory info.
http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/5-ways-pets-improve-your-health gives great statistics and specifics regarding studies(below is more info, much is already written in the rough draft)

Good for Mind and Soul

Pet owners with AIDS are far less likely to suffer from depression than those without pets. "The benefit is especially pronounced when people are strongly attached to their pets," says researcher Judith Siegel, PhD.
In one study, stockbrokers with high blood pressure who adopted a cat or dog had lower blood pressure readings in stressful situations than did people without pets.
People in stress mode get into a "state of dis-ease," in which harmful chemicals like cortisol and norepinephrine can negatively affect the immune system, says Blair Justice, PhD, a psychology professor at the University of Texas School of Public Health and author of Who Gets Sick: How Beliefs, Moods, and Thoughts Affect Your Health.
Studies show a link between these chemicals and plaque buildup in arteries, the red flag for heart disease, says Justice.
Like any enjoyable activity, playing with a dog can elevate levels of serotonin and dopamine -- nerve transmitters that are known to have pleasurable and calming properties, he tells WebMD.
http://ww.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=0+1278&aid=638gives specifics in terms of numbers for how dogs help heart attacks: Dog ownership increases the odds for survival in persons who have had a heart attack from 1 in 15 to 1 in 87. Pet ownership also has increased the percent of people who survived at least one year after hospitalization for heart problems. Only 6% of nonpet owners survived versus 28% of people with pets. Pet ownership may be only one of several variables that influenced this improved survival, but even a 2-3% difference is significant. In addition, pets may actually lessen the risk of heart attacks. cholesterol:People with pets have been found to have lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared to people who did not have pets, even when matched for weight, diet, and smoking habits blood pressure/stress:Dogs have been shown to reduce blood pressure in a number of populations. Studies in women undergoing stress tests, have demonstrated that the presence of a dog had more of an effect on lowering blood pressure than the presence of friends. Similarly, children who had a dog present during their physical examination showed lower heart rate, blood pressure, and behavioral distress than when the dog was not present.
Stockbrokers who had dogs or cats in their offices when they had to carry out stressful tasks had smaller increases in blood pressure than those who did not have a pet present.
http://naturalmedicine.suite101.com/article.cfm/studies_show_pets_improve_your_healthgives overview of how pets make people healthier http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/49/6/797full report of effects of animal assisted therapy on psychiatric patients NEW INFO ABOVE ^^^
http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_pet-therapy.htm

We should point out in this connection that pets can be a source of stress to some people. They may worry who will take care of their pets when they die. In most cases, however, the need to take care of the pets give a reason for living to many terminally ill patients, prolonging their life span

Pet owners often feel needed and responsible, which may stimulate the survival incentive. They feel they need to survive to take care of their pets. (Many cancer patients with pets have lived longer because they felt that their pets need them!) Stroking a dog, watching a kitten tumble, or observing the hypnotic explorations of fish can be an antidote to a foul mood or a frazzling day.

Notes:
your working thesis is the answer to your question, and your answer is what YOU create from your secondary readings. so you will create the conclusion

remember to focus on therapy dogs, even though there are great stories about service dogs

http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/pet-therapy-bjs.htm

Why would pets produce these results? The theory is that the animals reduce stress levels and loneliness and, bring people out of themselves. People can become more social when they are in the presence of animals. A researcher reviewed 25 studies that examined the effects pets had on nursing home patients and discovered they were more alert and smiled more when the animals were there; patients who were physically aggressive calmed down and allowed people to be near them.

"Dogs don't see what people see. They don't see a broken arm or a missing leg or a scar, which may make a patient embarrassed. Dogs make no judgments. They don't want anything from you and they don't have to say the right thing. They don't expect anything except perhaps a pat. They just want to give love.'
--I disagree! I think the dogs DO recognize the differences, which is why they are calmer and sweeter around people with problems

POSSIBLE THESIS: Dogs have the ability to sense disabilities in people, which is why they can affectively act as a type of therapy.

Continued notes from same webpage...

For good reason. The pug, while not formally trained to help his master, can be credited with alerting neighbors to a medical emergency. One day, Buddy began barking and wouldn't stop. A neighbor in his apartment building knew that was out of character for the dog and came to investigate. Buddy was barking because his owner was violently sick and needed to go to the hospital.

NEXT: http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/pet-therapy

The enjoyment of animals as companions dates back many centuries, perhaps even to prehistoric times. The first known therapeutic use of animals started in Gheel, Belgium in the ninth century. In this town, learning to care for farm animals has long been an important part of an assisted living program designed for people with disabilities

Many skills can be learned or improved with the assistance of a therapy animal. Patient rehabilitation can be encouraged by such activities as walking or running with a dog, or throwing objects for the animal to retrieve. Fine motor skills may be developed by petting, grooming, or feeding the animal. Patient communication is encouraged by the response of the animal to either verbal or physical commands. Activities such as writing or talking about the therapy animals or past pets also develop cognitive skills and communication. Creative inclusion of an animal in the life or therapy of a patient can make a major difference in the patient's comfort, progress, and recovery

Benefits:
One advantage of having volunteers provide this service is that cost and insurance are not at issue.
--It's a great resource that is basically free!!

the research evidence supporting the efficacy of AAT is slim, although the anecdotal support is vast. Although it may not be given much credence by medical personnel as a therapy with the potential to assist the progress of the patients, some institutions do at least allow it as something that will uplift the patients or distract them from their discomforts.
--
research hasnt been done to support the benefits, only stories**

Annotation: This site gave a basic overview of Pet Therapy, good for people who know little to nothing on the subject. It does mention a couple interesting points such as the long process of certifying a therapy pet and that AAT (animal assisted therapy) hasn't been supported by research, only anecdotal evidence

Thing to think about:
Does the therapy help the dogs as well? If so, people with problem dogs could help their dogs and other people. (Obviously extreme behavior problems could not be in contact with fragile people, but maybe only slight behavior problems could be cured.) Based on the idea that the dogs are bored or wanting attention, so directing their energy into a task may help that problem.
New website:**http://www.dogplay.com/Activities/Therapy/therapy.html** Talk about the different parts of a dog that make a good therapy pet. Is it possible that dogs can learn these behaviors instead of having their innate instincts rule?

What makes a good therapy dog?

Visiting dogs must be social. The point of the program is the interaction between the dog and the people you are visiting. If the dog does not enjoy the visit the interaction will be less than ideal. The person needs to feel accepted by the dog. A doggie rejection could make the visit more hurtful than no visit at all. A good therapy dog is calm, tolerant and friendly. The visits should be pleasurable for both of you. Don't try to force therapy work on a dog.
Visiting dogs must be polite. It is rude for a person to challenge another for walking down a public street. The same is true for your dog. That it is natural for one dog to challenge another does not mean its polite. It is also rude for one person to touch another without permission. How would you react if some stranger on the street walked up to you and kissed you? A polite dog does not touch a person unless invited.
The balance between calmness, and friendliness is a difficult one. Even an excellent obedience dog may not be a good visiting dog if it shows little interest in meeting people. An aloof dog may be calm, but may cause people to feel rejected. A very friendly dog may have the best of intentions but may cause injury. A dog that is full of energy and always ready to work may be too active for most situations.
Any breed of dog can participate. My visiting dog, Oso, is a large breed terrier mix. I can take credit only for his schooling. The temperament that makes him suitable is natural to him, and the reason I chose to become involved. His girlfriend, Tanith, is also well schooled and well socialized. Her natural exuberance, however, is not well suited to the kind of visits we do. Maturity may make the difference for her. When I decide whether a dog is suited for visiting I think about what I'm asking them to do. If I'm asking them to constantly restrain themselves, when that is not their nature, I'm not sure they can enjoy visiting. It is important to that the dog is comfortable with the behavior required of it.
"Visiting dogs must be social...Visiting dogs must be polite...When I decide whether a dog is suited for visiting I think about what I'm asking them to do. If I'm asking them to constantly restrain themselves, when that is not their nature, I'm not sure they can enjoy visiting. It is important to that the dog is comfortable with the behavior required of it." **http://www.sniksnak.com/therapy.html**Most important is that the therapy cats and dogs have a calm, gentle personality and are people-oriented. They must love attention and petting and not be shy. In addition, they need basic obedience training and should be conditioned to sudden noises. They provide an invaluable service to those who are lonely, abandoned, or ill; indeed, anyone who needs the miraculous healing that can arise from a hug and a gentle touch. **http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/pet-therapy**

Origins


The enjoyment of animals as companions dates back many centuries, perhaps even to prehistoric times. The first known therapeutic use of animals started in Gheel, Belgium in the ninth century. In this town, learning to care for farm animals has long been an important part of an assisted living program designed for people with disabilities.
Some of the earliest uses of animal-assisted healing in the United States were for psychiatric patients. The presence of the therapy animals produced a beneficial effect on both children and adults with mental health issues. It is only in the last few decades that AAT has been more formally applied in a variety of therapeutic settings, including schools and prisons, as well as hospitals, hospices, nursing homes, and outpatient care programs. Researchable question: Must a dog have the innate ability to be calm, collected, and friendly to be a therapy dog? Or can these behaviors be learned through proper training?

Animal behaviorist: Dr. Victoria Voith

Charlotte Swartz- believes dogs need to be given a job! then their behavior will get better

Dogplay.com:
The temperament that makes him suitable is natural to him, and the reason I chose to become involved. His girlfriend, Tanith, is also well schooled and well socialized. Her natural exuberance, however, is not well suited to the kind of visits we do. Maturity may make the difference for her. When I decide whether a dog is suited for visiting I think about what I'm asking them to do. If I'm asking them to constantly restrain themselves, when that is not their nature, I'm not sure they can enjoy visiting. It is important to that the dog is comfortable with the behavior required of it.
http://www.doggies.com/articles/43-therapy-dog-training.htm
Good therapy dogs have certain intrinsic qualities that are excellent characteristics for therapy dogs. It’s important to take a full look at what pet therapy involves when deciding whether your dog would make a good therapy dog....In general, a therapy dog needs to be calm in nature....One of the most important behaviors a dog should have in order to become a good therapy dog would be to have good canine manners. Since therapy dogs are expected to fulfill the expectations of whoever is handling them at the time of the visit, a tendency toward good behavior is a must....While formal obedience training is not mandatory in many cases, it can’t hurt http://www.brevardtherapydogs.com/qualities.html
1. Calm:
  • A therapy dog should have a gentle, calm nature. Do not confuse this with slowness or inactivity. Small dogs often move quickly, wag their tails with great gusto and yet they have a very gentle touch and stand or sit quietly to be petted or hugged.
2. FRIENDLY:
  • A therapy dog is outgoing and shows a willingness and eagerness to meet new people. The dog should communicate an interest in the person being visited. Any sign of aggression would disqualify a dog as a registered therapy dog.

http://www.wikifido.com/page/Therapy+Dogs Therapy dogs come in all shapes, sizes and breeds. The most important criteria for becoming a therapy dog is a calm, gentle nature, patient and friendly around new people. The dog must be well-socialized, healthy, and clean. Therapy dogs visit people to bring warmth and comfort, so they must love being with people, and happy to sit on a lap, or receive affection from all those wanting to give.

Proper training is important for therapy dogs. In general, they must have the skills necessary to pass the AKC's Canine Good Citizen test. Various organizations offer training and certification, including some national organizations and some local organizations. For training particulars, you should contact a related organization and research their specific criteria. Whippets are great therapy dogs. http://startherapydogs.org/becometeam.html Temperament is the most important factor. (Remember the old real estate cliche, “location, location, location”? Well, in therapy work it’s “temperament, temperament, temperament”—because nothing else will take its place.)Note that very little has been said about training, as such. Yes, training matters—but unless the dog is friendly to start with, the training may well be wasted for this particular purpose. I have personally known a number of highly-trained dogs, some with truly impressive obedience titles, who would be barely adequate (if that) as Therapy Dogs. Of our own dogs, the better-trained one, who will retrieve various objects by name, perform lengthy out-of-sight sits and stays, etc., etc., is not a T-Dog prospect for several reasons, the most important of which is that he likes most strangers but by no means all. He also has very normal reactions to disturbances and to perceived threats involving either himself or us. Our less-trained dog, on the other hand, is a natural. She not only loves everyone, but she is virtually “people-proof.” If a cyclist ran over her tail after a parade, she would not (as her better-trained colleague did) bark at the person; she would look to me for a signal. You get the idea.